Achievements and potential

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Achievements and potential

I. ACHIEVEMENTS

1.1. The projects have been implemented since 2010

Classified by subject level

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

State level

3

7

9

13

7

4

0

0

Ministry

4

3

9

6

7

5

3

3

Project on agricultural science and technology, central agriculture extension

5

3

2

2

1

2

 

4

ANDAS (Vietnamese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)

9

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subjects with localities

22

27

14

15

16

30

30

18

Branch, coordination subjects

23

15

4

18

19

19

11

5

International cooperation

8

 

7

9

8

9

10

11

Economic contract/service

20

22

35

45

 

5

20

26

Standard quality measurement

13

13

 

3

7

13

4

6

 

1.2. Achievements in basic research, protection and improvement of land

One of the remarkable achievements in science and technology in basic research that has been achieved over the past 10 years is the successful application of the FAO-UNESCO-WRB quantitative land classification. The Institute has implemented the revision and adjustment of land maps at the scale of 1/50,000 - 1/100,000 at the District and provincial levels for some Provinces and cities nationwide: Hanoi, Thai Binh, Ha Nam, Bac Ninh, Bac Giang, Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Phu Tho, Ha Giang, Bac Kan, Nghe An, Quang Nam, Lam Dong, Dong Nai and Phu Yen; The Districts of Lao PDR are Taoy, Tumlan, Andpi, Lakhonpheng (Saravani Province), Sanxay District (Attupeu Province), Namtha and Sing District (Luang Namtha Province), Nambak District (Luang Prabang Province), and Sayaboury Province. The above method has also been applied successfully to develop a large scale land map (1/25,000) for some localities, contributing to improving the quality of land use planning projects, and to create a premise for The Research on the improvement of the new land classification system in Vietnam In the course of studying the application of the FAO-UNESCO-WRB soil classification method, the Institute added a number of unique land units in Vietnam. The above mentioned, such as Cambic Fluvisols, Ferralic Acrisols, ...

In parallel with the application of the FAO-UNESCO-WRB Land Classification, FAO's quantitative land evaluation has been applied in many Provinces for more than 10 years. Land maps, land units, land suitability, land use orientation (scale from 1/5,000-1/50,000) have been developed for localities such as Bac Ninh, Bac Giang , Ha Giang, Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Son La, Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Hoa Binh, Lam Dong, Dong Nai, Sayaboury (Laos), and some rubber plantations in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. In addition, land use planning has been implemented at a number of levels with a variety of approaches including Land Use Planning Systems Analysis (LUPAS). This is an “open” approach, “active” problem which allows for the development of a variety of options for local selection, topography and land use, as well as socio-economic conditions. In Bac Kan, Lao Cai, Yen Bai, Ha Noi, etc ... and some other agencies (Mekong Delta Rice Research Institute, Southern Science and Technology Center, Ministry of Science and Technology) apply in some Provinces in the South, the planning results have contributed to the improvement of the use and management of land resources in localities.
Over the years, research on microscopic soil and clay minerals in some major soils has been of interest. The research results show the morphology and composition of the clay layers of the main soil types for soil classification, land evaluation, land use and effective fertilizers. Up to now, the microorganism database of 6 of the 13 major soil groups has been completed, including gray soil, red soils, alluvial soil, saline soils, acid sulphate soils and sandy soils; and clay data of 12/13 major soil groups (except for goup graval exposed
In the period of 2006-2010, the Institute carried out the research on the status of acid sulphate soils and saline soils in the Mekong River Delta and the Red River Delta after 30 years of exploitation. The results show that after more than 30 years of use, saline soils and alkaline soils have experienced significant changes in both quantity and quality. In the Red River Delta, the area of saline land decreased by nearly 10,000 ha, concentrated in Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Thai Binh, Hai Duong and Ninh Binh Provinces; but increased in Nam Dinh. The area of alum soil increased and total area reached 7,400 ha, concentrated in the Provinces of Hai Phong, Thai Binh, Hai Duong and Quang Ninh; Nam Dinh so far do not see the alkaline soil. In the Mekong Delta the area of saline land increased by nearly 177,000 ha; Meanwhile, the acreage of acres decreased by nearly 262,000 ha. Notably, the average area of saline soils was less than 200,000 ha and the acidity of the soils increased by nearly 333,000 ha, while the area of alkaline soil decreased by 595,000 ha. Some basic properties of saline soils and acid sulphate soils also change: Total soluble salts increase in most saline soils. The total content of organic carbon, phosphorus, phosphorus, potassium has little or no change in most saline soils. In contrast, easy-to-digest nutrients: phosphorus, potassium, and alkaline cations (Ca2+, Mg2+) tend to decrease. However, the content of digestible substances decreased due to the high level of cultivation, so the nutrient uptake rate of the plant was higher than that of the nutrient solution in the soil. These are the latest researches on saline soils and acid sulphate soils that contribute to improving the quality of crop transformation schemes in each Province and provide a scientific basis for synthesizing crop restructuring plans on alkaline soils and saline soils of the two largest rice growing regions of the country. On the other hand, this also helps the management of land resources in these two areas better.

In addition to the research on saline soils and acid soils, the Institute has focused on the limiting factors in paddy land in the Red River Delta and the Mekong Delta, proposing solutions to improve efficiency. Use rice land in two above areas. The results show that paddy land in the Mekong Delta has a shortage of phosphorus (total and especially easy to digest) compared to the Red River Delta. However, this shortage has not shown serious effects on rice yields to become a limiting factor for rice. In contrast, high levels of phosphorus were found in some rice cultivars, especially in the gray soil.

Gray soil is also one of the “problematic” soils that have been researched in recent years. In the period from 2009-2012, the Institute has determined the status of the quantity and quality of the gray soil of northern Vietnam. The results show that the area of gray soil is 232,620 ha, decreasing about 28,096 ha compared to 1979. The quality of the gray soil is much different from before. The level of nutrients in the cultivation layer is currently at an average level, especially the content of total phosphorus and easy to digest is rich to very rich. From the above results, scientific and technological solutions have been developed to effectively use grayish soil resources in the North. soil erosion). The establishment of the database on land is one of the main achievements of the Institute. Some typical projects include: Building a database of land quality and quantity (including mapping systems and explanatory notes attached), testing models and advanced technology solutions. High land use efficiency for some major crops for the Provinces and the whole North West, for the Districts and the entire Phu Yen Province; Development of a database of gray-on-white soils in the north of Vietnam; a database of plants and systems of crops on gray soils and solutions for exploiting and using rationally grayed soils. Develop a database on the content and types of phosphorus soils, develop models and propose solutions to improve the efficiency of efficient utilization of phosphorous fertilizer for the main crop structure; Development of a database on the status of rice land, limiting factors and causes of soil fertility constraints in the Red River Delta and the Mekong Delta, limitations of some key factors for rice production in some types of research land and the system of measures to overcome limiting factors in rice production.

The Institute has been actively contributing to the effective management and exploitation of land resources through the identification of land properties and the establishment of a database of land for Provinces such as Bac Giang , Hung Yen, Thai Binh, Nam Dinh, Quang Nam, Vinh Phuc, Hanoi ... for crop restructuring. From there, carry out appropriate land evaluation and proposals for land use and scientific and technological solutions for rational use and sustainable development. The Institute also conducted a study to determine the soil fertility in the key sugar cane growing areas in the country, the current status of sugar cane cultivation in the North Central Coast; South Central, South East and Mekong Delta, sugarcane in Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang ... as the basis for proposing technical solutions to improve the fertility of sugar cane, improve sugarcane productivity and quality; Determining the extent of land degradation and types of land degradation for sustainable development in Hanoi and Vinh Phuc; Develop agro-forestry maps for intensive farming, sustainable management of land resources in Bac Giang, Hung Yen and Thai Binh Provinces; Research on the improvement of fertility and technical solutions to improve the efficiency of land use for rice and terraced rice fields in Yen Bai.

In the past ten years, the Institute has also built a scientific base on land and human resources for GI registration for more than 20 agricultural products in different areas: Vinh orange, Doan Hung pomelo, Tan Trieu Pomelo, Luc Ngan Thieu litchi, Yen Chau mango, Ninh Thuan grapes, Trung Khanh chestnut, Tien Lang pipe tobacoo, Nga Son sedge, Ngoc Linh ginseng, Quang Tri pepper, Van Yen cinnamon and Tra My cinnamon, Ninh Binh mountain goat, Tan Trieu pomelo, Long Khanh rambutan ... Most of these plants have been recognized and protected by the Department of Intellectual Property and geographical instruction protection.

The Vietnam Land Information and Data Center has been established with 67 landform monoliths that characterize the main soils of our country according to advanced technology acquired from the National Land Information Center (ISRIC), accompanying exhibitors with full information system of land names by Vietnam, FAO-UNESCO, Soil-Taxonomy and the physical and chemical properties of the land. All information has been uploaded to the internet at the address http:/www.baotangdat.com serving the research and study with thousands of visitors each year. The Insitute has constructed a monolithic soil system for the Hanoi Natural Museum towards the 1,000th anniversary of Thang Long - Hanoi.


1.3.
 Achievements in the field of fertilizer and plant nutrition
One of the main research areas that has been focused since the year 2000 is the use of agricultural by-product as an organic source of organic nutrients at site, both increase crop yields, improve soil properties, reduce fertilizer Mineral fertilizer and environmentally friendly. The long-term research results (16 years) of continuous crop residue, rice yield, maize and soybean yield in Bac Giang degraded soil increased from 10 to 14%, and at the same time burial of byproducts increased the autoclave capacity and collection of mineral nutrients and potassium supplements for this type of soil.
Research on manufacture of functional fertilizers, especially for plants (use organic sources such as coffee peat, peat, waste from seafood processing, cattle slaughter, seaweed. ..) have successfully produced 6 sets of solid biomass fertilizer and 9 liquid fertilizer application leaf spray suitable for each group of plants: i) Fertilizer application increases the productivity of tea, coffee and pepper from 12-20%; increased yields of tomatoes, cabbage and soybeans from 15-20%. ii) Functional spraying increased the yield of 17-18%, 19-28% of coffee, 14-20% of coffee, 47-55% of coffee; tea yield increased by 11-30%, increasing amino acid content and reducing tannin content to make good tea; iii) Functional fertilizer increases fruits availability and increases fruit yield (30%), fruit weight (21-31%) and increases sugar content in Phuc Trach pomelos; iv) The use of organic micro-organism fertilizer for the Northwest region, good impact on the growth, development, productivity of rubber latex.

Pilot production projects have contributed to the complete production process and the introduction of some types of fertilizers and agrochemicals, which are accepted by the market. For more than 10 years, Center for Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Research has produced foliar fertilizers A2, A4, Amin, RQ, CQ for vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants; GT05 promotes seedling production in the forestry industry (eucalyptus, acacia, pine) and fruit trees (mango, longan, pomelo) towards industry and has been transferred to fertilizer enterprises with thousands of ton/year. In addition, the Institute has also researched and developed a number of special fertilizers from foreign companies, including the multi-volume century fertilizer KOM, micro-fertilizer NUMIC, which have been applied broadly by the farmers, especially the Highland and South-east region. The research and production and application of new generation fertilizers for some main crops; Successfully manufactured 3 types: charcoal from coconut husks, rice husk, coffee husk by burning method; Use the above raw materials to produce organic fertilizer products specifically for rice, maize and vegetables. The quantity achieved is 03 products; 10 double layer hydroxide products capable of adsorbing anionic plant nutrients were synthesized; Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of the product; Selection of two products that can be used as mineral fertilizer slow resolution. Slow release phosphate from the double layer hydroxide with P = 21% or P2O5 content = 48%; Possible use as a phosphorus source for plants.

Basic research on the use of fertilizers and plant nutrition in this period continues to be emphasized. Some high value commodity crops such as tea grown on yellow-red soil on clay rocks, soybeans on gray soil, peanut on sandy soil show signs of shortage of medium-micro elements such as Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Mo, Zn, Mn and B. The addition of micronutrient elements at reasonable rates increased crop yields by 9-27% different crops), and at the same time increase the efficiency of using NPK and increase the quality of agricultural products. Long-term effects of fertilizers on crop yields in Bac Giang's gray degraded soils have identified specific constraints for individual crops in different crops. Do research and determine that the cause of gold leaf rice in Bac Ninh is related to the deficiency of Mg in the soil so the ability of oxidation of the root system reduces the root system and plants poisoned with iron; This found cause has suggested effective solutions.

Successfully tested and applied the information technology application model to estimate the amount of fertilizer needed per year for some main crops in Dong Nai at farm level, commune level, District level and provincial level. Web-based software design that integrates soil parameters, nutrient requirements of plants, nutrient depletion due to erosion/erosion, and other parameters that enable people to calculate themselves the annual demand for fertilizer for crops on their land. At the same time, it also helps management authorities take the initiative in planning annual fertilizer demand for crops in the Province such as Bac Ninh and Thanh Hoa.

The institute is also working on the research for production of high-quality soluble fertilizers through use of irrigation systems for some shallow crops. Three high content NPK fertilizers (over 60% NPK) have been tested and stabilized in quality, completely dissolved in irrigation water. Fertilizer products have been asserted for quality and agronomic efficiency equivalent to imported fertilizers.

Fertilizer Information and Data Center is regularly updated. It has collected, stored and displayed over 1,000 imported and domestically produced fertilizers. Collected samples are labeled in Vietnamese and English in origin and place of manufacture for easy reference.

The conservation work of the gene pool of green manure and soil conservation trees is also maintained regularly. Currently, the Institute is storing more than 60 varieties of various kinds and is added every year from different ecological zones.


1.4. Achievements in the field of microorganism
The isolation and selection of microorganisms that are resistant to pathogenic microorganisms in plants to produce medicinal products that both control disease and stimulate plant growth have been studied extensively in the past. Antimicrobial resistance of sesame and peanut wilt disease reduces the incidence of disease by 60%, increases productivity and increases economic efficiency compared to control group. Microbiological by-products for chilli plants reduce the incidence of wilting by 40-50%, fruit rot disease by 20-30%; At the same time, the volume of fertilizer N and P was reduced by 20% and the yield increased by 11-17 million VND/ha. Product for prevention of nematode, disease mold on coffee and pepper roots has effects of increasing the canopy diameter, decreasing deciduous yellow leaf disease, increasing the useful microorganism and decreasing 17-67% of the number of nematodes Pratylenchus sp. in the soil. Using 1 ton of functional organic fertilizer can replace 10 tons of manure and have the effects of reducing bacterial wilt on peanut, tomato, potato 37-78%, reducing the rate of root disease at the same time, increasing yields of 10-20% for soybean, groundnut, tomato, potato, vegetable, rice, pepper, coffee and cotton.

For long-term day crops, many studies have focused on the selection of useful microorganisms to produce functional fertilizers for tea, coffee and rubber. For tea plants in Yen Bai Province, initially, Azotobacter strains found to be highly capable of producing high IAA and soluble in P2O5 medium have been selected. These are potential microorganism strains suitable for Yen Bai tea growing land, as well as the production of microbial organic fertilizer for tea plants in Yen Bai. For the rubber tree, the environmental composition and suitable specifications for the fermentation of the functional microorganism masses have been determined: cellulosic degradation, free nitrogen fixation, phosphorus degradation, stimulating the growth and production of polysaccharides, microorganisms that are active against microorganisms causing diseases ... to produce microorganic organic fertilizer for rubber trees in different growth periods in Northwest of Vietnam. For coffee plants, some microorganisms can be used in the production of microorganisms that can increase the density of beneficial microorganisms, reducing nematode damage in soil and not to adversely affect the growth and development of coffee.

Using microorganisms to treat the environment is an important research direction in the past. Microbiological products for treatment of solid and liquid animal wastes is effective in large scale pig and chicken farms: deodorizing and destroying harmful microorganisms such as Coliform, Salmonella, spoiling eggs, worms; After treatment, waste is used as fertilizer instead of manure can save 25% of fertilizer N, P fertilizer without affecting productivity; the product meets requirements of TCVN 7185: 2002. Selection of microorganisms capable of metabolizing and absorbing heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb) and use in combination with plants such as wild squash, coconut water, vertical raceways ... to treat agricultural polluted soil is very effective.

The conservation of the microorganism gene fund is carried out regularly. The institute is regularly preserving 1,558 microbial genetic resources (including 694 soil microbial genetic resources, fertilizer and 864 plant microbial genomes); Genetic resources are maintained to ensure survival; Identification and selection of 12 genomic genomes: There are two potential sources of potassium dissolved, two dissimilar gene sources, two polysaccharides capable of producing polysaccharides, and three gene sources of fungal resistance, bacterial pathogen resistance and three pathogenic microorganisms (toxicity> 70%). Making evaluation of biological activity, classification of species and documentation of 694 microbial genomes for research and production. Every year, the microbial gene pool replaces 30-50 new microbial strains from various isolates, including international cooperation.

Gradually evaluating and determining the biological activity of microorganisms; Finalizing and updating information according to set form and kept in computer; has provided hundreds of microorganism strains for research and production units in the country. In addition to conservation, research has been conducted on the use of recombinant DNA methods and mutagens to enhance biological activity in favor of existing strains of microorganisms. Annually, the Microbial Genome Fund replenishes 30-50 new microbial strains from various isolation sources, including imported sources from international cooperation projects.